In the 1920’s Alfred Watkins suggested that Neolithic monuments were positioned in the landscape on straight lines joining two or more high points; this was long before the creation of Google Earth.
If Google Earth had been available to Watkins he could have seen many Neolithic monuments on this digital global map and the ‘ruler’ feature could be used to draw straight lines from a monument to high points. The ‘Geographic Features’ and elevation figures determine the location of the highest summits.
A straight line joins Silbury Hill, Walbury Hill and Leith Hill.
Using the ruler on Google Earth a line drawn from the world’s highest Neolithic mound, Silbury Hill at Avebury can be drawn to the highest summit in South East England, Walbury Hill. This straight line continues for 70 km to the second highest summit in South East England, Leith Hill.
The next image shows two lines drawn from the summit of The Peak District, Kinder Scout. The first line passes over the base of Silbury Hill, the second pass over the highest point in Wiltshire, the summit of Milk Hill. The two lines flank the circle at Avebury showing that Avebury is on a line joining Wiltshire’s high point and the Peak District’s high point.
Lines drawn from Kinder Scout, over 200km from the Avebury circle, it is the highest point in the Peak District and overlooks all land in England to the south. The yellow line passes to Silbury Hill, the white line passes to Wiltshire’s highest summit, Milk Hill. The lines define the eastern and western limits of the large stone circle at Avebury.
Alignments like these are found with the largest stone circles in Britain.
In central England, in the Peak District, the two largest Neolithic circles are both aligned with high points. A line from the Bull Ring passing over the highest summit, Kinder Scout, continues to the second highest summit, Bleaklow.
A line joins the Bull Ring with Kinder Scout summit and Bleaklow summit. The two summits are the highest in the Peak District, they are about 8.5 kilometres apart.
In Northern England, the largest stone circle, Long Meg and Her Daughters, is aligned with the two highest summits in England, Scarfell Pike and Scarfell.
A line joining Long Meg and her daughters with Scarfell Pike and Scarfell summits, the summits are just over a kilometre apart; the line extends to the summit of Black Fell in the Pennines.
The largest circle in Scotland, the Ring of Brodgar on Orkney is also aligned with two summits, Mid Tooin and Cuilags, the northern high points on the islands of Hoy and Mainland. This line crosses the west coast of Hoy at the island’s western extreme.
In each of these examples the summit areas on the hills are defined by the elevation figures on Google Earth, and in each case joining these summit areas creates these alignments. The examples shown include the largest Neolithic circles in Southern England, Central England, Northern England and Scotland, with significant hilltop alignments in each case.
At Callanish, a line to the highest point on the landmass is indicated by an avenue of stones.
Callanish stone circle and avenue as seen on Google Earth with a line to the summit of Clisham, the highest summit on the island of Lewis and Harris, the avenue follows the line to the summit which is 26km from the monument.
There is evidence here of some common guidance in the choice of these locations but the prevailing beliefs about Neolithic ability prevent these alignments being considered as intentional. And here is the problem. The current belief that Neolithic people were unable to recognise these alignments, and consequently these alignments must be accidental, is not an easy view to support when the same accident keeps repeating itself. But above and beyond this, these monuments prove to be placed at specific intervals on these lines in order to create geometry with other high points in the landscape.
By studying these alignments, a geometric order among natural high points is revealed. In this way the locations of the monuments convey information.
Silbury Hill provides a local example of the method that can be adopted to reveal topographical geometry. This method is seen more broadly across the country.
Firstly extreme points that are aligned with the monument are identified.
Secondly, an equidistant relationship is found with another high point:
Hackpen Hill is the highest summit on the Marlborough Downs to the north of Avebury. Tan Hill and Milk Hill are the two highest summits in Wiltshire. All three summits are relatively flat, the geometry is created between the two visible ordnance survey trig points and the Google Earth summit symbol on Milk Hill, (the farmer has removed the Tan Hill trig point, it appears on the 2014 Google Earth image).
The method shown locally at Silbury Hill can be followed on a grand scale with all these monuments and in each case, the same method identifies a strong sense of geometric order in the countryside which passes unnoticed in the present day.
Examples of this method at Avebury, Stanton Drew and Stonehenge follow.
The first image shows two straight lines meeting at Avebury. The first line is taken from the avenue of stones joining Avebury circle and the Sanctuary circle. This line passes over the highest summit in southern England, High Willhays, and continues to England’s western landmass extreme, the tip of Land’s End.
On Google Earth, the line joining the eastern and western extreme points of England passes directly over the summit of High Willhays. Avebury identifies this natural alignment by resting on the line. The evidence that this was intended is found by adopting the method seen at Silbury Hill.
The next picture shows the simple Neolithic method used commonly among the monument builders. The intervals on the lines are used as yardsticks to define other extreme points.
The yardstick between the summit of High Willhays and Silbury Hill is equal to the distance between the summit of High Willhays and the tip of the headland on the western extreme point of the Isle of Wight.
The next picture shows how the same distance can be measured from Avebury to the tip of The Gower Peninsula, creating a second isosceles triangle.
The distance between Avebury and High Willhays is used as a yardstick to create two isosceles triangles with two corners located on two westerly pointing peninsulas.
Firstly the western extreme of the Gower Peninsula at Worm Head in South Wales, and secondly the western extreme of the Isle of Wight, a finger of land pointing to the offshore chalk stacks called, ‘The Needles’. One triangle corner is located on the Needles headland and another on Worm Head.
The next picture shows that a line can be drawn joining these two peninsulas and then extended to a third extreme, the western extreme of the Welsh landmass, on St David’s Head.
The distance between High Willhays and Avebury can be used as a yardstick to establish the white line which provides information, namely that three western extreme points are in alignment.
This single example, considered in isolation, may appear as no more than an odd coincidence, nevertheless it does convey information about landscape geometry, and this is the common factor among the monuments.
When the same method is continued, using intervals on the same line, a second more striking alignment of natural extreme points is established.
When the distance between Land’s End and Avebury is used as a yardstick it identifies another coastal point, the tip of the Llyn Peninsula.
The next image continues the process showing how the distance between Land’s End and Ness Point identifies another coastal extreme point.
Land’s End and the tip of the Mull of Kintyre are equidistant from Ness Point.
The next image is the key to the process. The image shows that three coastal extreme points identified by this method rest on a straight line; and when the line is extended it passes to the summit of southern England’s highest hill, High Willhays.
Four extreme points in the landscape identified by this method are on a straight line.
This line affirms that Avebury was not located accidentally because the monument is also in alignment with two coastal extreme points and High Willhays. As Professor Thom discovered, the people who created these monuments were extremely “smart”. A line one hundred metres broad touches the summit of High Willhays, Worm Head, at the tip of the Gower Peninsula, and the tip of the Llyn Peninsula. It continues to the tip, or nose, of the Mull of Kintyre and in so doing passes over the tip of Burr Head on the eastern extreme of the landmass of Ireland (marked above by a solitary red dot).
This topographical geometry featuring five aligned natural extreme points is found through using the intervals on the initial line that joins Land’s End, High Willhays, Avebury and Ness Point. The intervals on this initial line provide the ‘yardsticks’ for identifying three coastal extreme points that are aligned with High Willhays, the yardsticks are marked (a), (b) and (c) in the following image.
The initial line can be seen as a signal to the second and third lines, and the creation of these additional alignments amounts to a method by which symbols are located on straight lines to provide information. This is a form of written language like our own, and it communicates information about geometry in the landscape. By whatever means Neolithic people were guided to Avebury, the location communicates in a geometric language as one further development of the initial line reveals.
Using the same method and the same line again, the yardstick between Silbury Hill and Ness Point identifies a further extreme point, the long finger of land at Spurn Head.
Spurn Head is at the apex of an isosceles triangle, and the baseline of this triangle is the line that joins the five extreme points.
It is a beautiful geometric work. And yet it is a near certainty that Spurn Head did not occupy its current location in Neolithic times. It is now a finger of land about five kilometres in length, the finger gradually shifts position over time. The apex point of the triangle is shown in the next image as a red dot on Spurn Head.
Google Earth’s ruler gives measurements from one point to another. If all the points in this geometry are located and measured precisely using Google Earth’s ruler a tolerance is required on the tip of the Mull of Kintyre, shown by the red dots in the next image.
The Mull of Kintyre
The initial line passing through Avebury identifies further extreme point geometry with the summit of High Willhays.
The yardstick between the peninsula at Land’s End and the summit of High Willhays is the same as the distance between High Willhays and the summit of Pen-Y-Fan, the highest summit in South Wales.
This Neolithic method provides information about geometry between topographical extreme points, a geometric view of geography not recognised today. It does this systematically from one monument to the next.
The method continues at Avebury, finding that the location of Silbury Hill is also aligned with the two highest hills in south-east England, Walbury Hill and Leith Hill. The next image shows how the summit points signified in this second alignment are coupled with the Haddington Hill alignment to reveal further isosceles geometry between three natural extreme points.
The summits of three hills aligned with Avebury form an isosceles triangle; Walbury Hill, Haddington Hill and Leith Hill.
A small area on each hilltop can be identified as the summit by using the elevation figures provided by Google Earth. Geometric points located on these three summit areas create a perfect isosceles triangle measured with Google Earth’s ruler. Walbury Hill and Leith Hill are the two highest summits in South East England. Haddington Hill summit is the highest point in the Chiltern Hills. Because this triangle is so accurate the probability of finding it among a few points chosen at random is vanishingly small. To find a triangle such as this created by three distinguished regional high points is enigmatic, similarly to find four coastal extremes aligned with High Willhays is also enigmatic; Neolithic monuments repeatedly give direction to this enigmatic geometry in the landscape.
The major trajectory of the Neolithic mounds and stone circles I have researched is to identify extremely accurate natural geometry like this found at Avebury, all using the same method. This method of signalling extreme points through alignment and equidistance results in the recognition of unusual geometry between the signalled points. If these points were accidentally aligned with the monuments they would be randomly spread and probability dictates that they would certainly not consistently create accurate geometry such as the geometry found consistently at Avebury.
The use of alignments, isosceles and right triangles in the landscape were strategic. It allows the location of the monuments to identify topographical extreme points that are unusually ordered.
This method was initially identified locally at Avebury when Silbury Hill is recognised as a geometric point.
Silbury Hill acts as a geometric point in the landscape.
At Stonehenge, exactly the same method produces a remarkably similar result and again provides information about geometry between extreme points.
The two images show that Leith Hill, Haddington Hill and the Needles Headland are three extreme points identified by the alignment and yardstick method here at Stonehenge. The same method identifies the same three points at Avebury. Baggy Point is another westerly pointing finger of land.
A common feature among these monument locations is that they lie in the crosshairs of a number of lines joining high points and extreme points. The extreme points then identify isosceles and right triangle geometry. The next picture shows three alignments between high points, extreme points and Stonehenge.
The monument identifies, through alignment, a series of natural extreme points that are themselves geometrically ordered.
Firstly three of the aligned points create an isosceles triangle.
Secondly, three of the aligned points create a right triangle.
The Stonehenge alignments identify both Ben Nevis and Baggy Point. When these two extreme points are joined together they create a yardstick and this yardstick measurement is the same as the distance between the summit of Ben Nevis and the tip of the Dingle Peninsula, at the western landmass extreme of Ireland. A huge isosceles triangle is created with the highest point in Britain and the western landmass extreme point, and on the third corner is Baggy Point. The location of Stonehenge identifies this large natural isosceles triangle by alignments with both Baggy Point and Ben Nevis.
The next picture shows a relationship between Stonehenge and England’s second largest Neolithic stone circle complex, Stanton Drew.
Cleeve Hill is the highest summit in the Cotswold Hills, higher than any point to the south through to the east of England.
The image above shows Prawle Point, Stanton Drew and Cleeve Hill in alignment, and also Prawle Point, Stonehenge and Walbury Hill in alignment.
Using the distance between Stanton Drew and Cleeve Hill summit as a yardstick an isosceles triangle is created with Walbury Hill. Moreover, the next image shows that using the distance between Stanton Drew and Walbury Hill as a yardstick an isosceles triangle is created, once again, with the Needles headland.
Thus all three monument locations (Stanton Drew, Stonehenge and Avebury) are at the corners of isosceles triangles and each triangle has a corner on the Needles headland. The third corners of these triangles are located on the summits of three regional high points, High Willhays, Cleeve Hill and Walbury Hill.
The next picture shows high points and extreme points that are aligned with Stanton Drew.
One line drawn in the picture above shows that Stanton Drew is aligned with the eastern extreme of Ireland, at Burr Point, and Mount Snowdon, the highest summit in Wales, England and Ireland. This line can be extended southwards over the central circle at Stanton Drew to the eastern pointing peninsular of Peveril Point on the south coast. Using the same procedure adopted at Stonehenge and Avebury this line produces isosceles geometry with further extreme points, firstly the highest summit on Lundy Island.
The yardstick from Mount Snowdon summit to Stanton Drew is the same as the distance from Snowdon’s summit to Beacon Hill summit.
The next picture shows how when the same line is produced to Peveril Point on the south coast it creates an isosceles triangle with Land’s End.
The locations of Stonehenge, Avebury and Stanton Drew identify extreme points by the same method of alignment and isosceles geometry. They each give direction to isosceles geometry and alignment found between natural extreme points. This is done by aligning the monument with two or more extreme points and thereby identifying them as signalled points in terms of landscape geometry. The alignment with extreme coastal points is confounding, but nevertheless repetitive enough to be predictable. For example Stanton Drew, Worm Head and Carrantuohill summit are in alignment, thus Stanton Drew identifies Worm Head by alignment with Ireland’s highest summit, and also identifies Burr Point by alignment with Mt Snowdon, the highest summit in England, Wales and Ireland. An earlier example showed that Burr Point and Worm Head were also identified from Avebury. They are on the line of four extreme coastal points aligned with High Willhays. Thus both Avebury and Stanton Drew identify the same enigmatic line joining extreme points.
Different monuments identify the same natural extreme points, and in so doing identify a geometric aspect of their distribution.
The following picture shows how common extreme points are signalled by two monuments, and how these points identify natural geometry in the landscape.
The lines from the two high points pass over the two monuments and identify the southern extreme point of Devon at Prawle Point.
The next picture shows the second set of common alignments, both monuments identify Ben Nevis by alignment with coastal extreme points.
Both monuments identify the summit of Ben Nevis by alignments with extreme coastal points. (The geometric point at Cap de la Hague is on the lighthouse).
And both monuments identify the tip of Prawle Point by alignment with high points. The signalled points, Prawle Point and Ben Nevis, are then joined.
The line joining the two points passes over a second national high point, the summit of Snaefell on the Isle of Man.
The next picture shows how the method adopted at Avebury, Stonehenge and Stanton Drew, can be adopted here with natural points to create a remarkable isosceles triangle.
Scarfell Pike is the highest point in England. The three national summit points identified with Google Earth are within one hundred metres of an exact isosceles triangle. The landscape is, therefore, being contextualised by the people who chose these monument locations. Their subject is an unfamiliar one in the present day; it defines enigmatic geometry in nature on a grand scale.
Each of these three monuments is located in the same way and, with some exceptions, the results of studying the largest Neolithic monuments is to discover one example after another of this unusual view of geometric order in geography.
The monuments identify the geometry that exists between extreme coastal points in the present day when coupled with the highest points. It is still possible today to see the scale of the natural geometry being identified.
Two large Neolithic monuments are on the line joining the summit of Ben Nevis and the Cap de la Hague lighthouse at the extreme tip of the Cherbourg Peninsula.
The yardstick between the two natural extreme points is signified by alignment with two Neolithic monuments.
The next picture shows that there is an equidistant relationship between Ben Nevis, Cap de la Hague lighthouse and the highest summit in the Pyrenees, Aneto.
Measured on Google Earth a point about 150 metres from the Cap de la Hague lighthouse is precisely equidistant between the summits of Ben Nevis and Aneto.
The great majority of over one hundred Neolithic mounds and circles I have studied refer to a remarkable relationship between high points and coastal extreme points in nature. The next image illustrates the repetition of this relationship in nature.
Using the Google Earth ruler the precise apex of the isosceles triangle is located about 150 metres from the western limit of the French landmass. The summit of Mt Blanc is found at 2790 meters using Google Earth’s elevation figures, this point is about 20 meters from the GPS coordinates for the high point (given on Peakbaggers.com). The two lines both measure 501.65 nautical miles on Google Earth.
Using the western extreme points on the two landmasses an isosceles triangle is created with the summit of Cleve Hill (elevation 330m on Google Earth). Measured precisely with the Google Earth ruler these two lines differ by less than 100 metres, the distances are 314.22 and 314.16 nautical miles.
Similar relationships are found on the Iberian Peninsula.
An isosceles triangle can be drawn between the northern extreme and the western extreme of the Iberian Peninsula and the highest summit on the Peninsula, Mulhacen. Precise point to point measures between the western landmass extreme, the northernmost coastal rock, and the highest summit on the Iberian Peninsula are 311.48 and311.44 nautical miles.
North-western and south-western extreme points form a right triangle with Mulhacen.
These two triangles on the Iberian Peninsula are both extremely accurate using Google Earth. The summit of Mulhacen is at n 37.053405 w 3.311461; (a long way from the Google Earth summit symbol. Many of Google Earth’s green summit symbols are good for guidance rather than precise measuring). The right angle corner is on the southern extreme point on the tip of the southwestern peninsula.
In Britain and Normandy, the Neolithic monuments repeatedly identify geometric relationships between high points and coastal extreme points. This provides a completely different view of the Earth from that currently held but, but although this geometry may hold no significance today, there is evidence in the way monuments are located that it was recognised in pre-historic times and considered significant.
Sites where the method of alignment described above is evident:
Long Meg and her Daughters
In addition to those featured in “Sacred Geometry of the Earth” Mark Vidler and Catherine Young. Inner Traditions 2016 ISBN 978-1-62055-468-5